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Номер открывается публикацией материалов незавершенной книги «Диалогов режиссера и теоретика» — Андрея Тарковского и Леонида Козлова. В подборку входят наиболее законченные фрагменты: 1) мемуарный, история взаимодействия глазами Козлова; 2) монологи и черновики теоретической части, включая «Вступительную главу», написанную Тарковсим; 3) критический разбор сценария «Соляриса» и переписка о фильме, над которым режиссер в то время работал; 4) короткая подборка самых поздних текстов; 5) мемуарный текст о лучших фильмах и режиссерах с точки зрения Тарковского.

Статья Сергея Филиппова «“В натуральную величину”. Пространственная рецепция в раннем кино» посвящена естественному размеру или натуральной величине в экранной рецепции. Опираясь на наблюдения современников первых шагов кинематографа, автор умозаключает, что если рецепция натуральной величины действительно существовала хотя бы и в смягчённой форме, то в игровом кино первых нескольких лет XX века должна была существовать стандартная крупность, которой следовало значительное количество фильмов.

Важные архивные публикации — сценарии Льва Кулешова, Льва Кассиля и Леонада Оболенского «Кража зрения» (1934) и Киры Муратовой и Владимира Зуева «Внимательно смотрите сны» (1968). Фильм Кулешова был закончен, но не сохранился, однако благодаря недавно найденному альбому фотографий стало возможным проиллюстрировать все сцены, и читатель может составить достаточно подробное впечатление о пропавшей картине. Сценарий Муратовой и Зуева поставлен не был, он важен для понимания последовательности и внутренней взаимосвязи в процессе эволюции стиля и мотивов, присущих режиссеру.

Сотрудники Австрийского киномузея Адельхайд Хефтбергер и Оливер Хэнли в статье «Вместе мы выстоим» делятся опытом использования новых возможностей киноархивов в век цифрового доступа.

В классической рубрике журнала «Эйзенштейновские чтения» — первая полная публикация мемуарного эссе Сергея Эйзенштейна «Визиты к миллионерам». Один из лучших образцов иронической прозы автора, этот очерк был написан в сентябре 1939 года в Ташкенте, однако Эйзенштейн не отдал его в печать. Почему в Узбекистане,—задается вопросом автор предисловия,—Сергей Михайлович вспомнил о Париже и стал писать о миллионере Леонарде Розентале и о его окружении? И предлагает догадку…

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

 
  • ТЕОРИЯ
5 Леонид КОЗЛОВ, Андрей ТАРКОВСКИЙ Диалоги режиссера и теоретика публикатор Дарья КРУЖКОВА

 
  • "МЕЖРАБПОМФИЛЬМУ"–90
79 Екатерина ХОХЛОВА Студия мастеров. Фильмы и судьбы

90 Александр ШВАРЦ От помощи голодающим до красного медиаконцерна переводчик Анна КУКЕС

101 Александр ШВАРЦ Об электрических лампочках и ледниках, комбинатах и кофейных рабах. Обзор документального кино «Межрабпома» переводчик Анна КУКЕС

108 Гюнтер АГДЕ В столкновении кадров: утопии и топосы переводчик Анна КУКЕС

 
  • МУЗЕЙ КИНО
120 Леонид ОБОЛЕНСКИЙ, Лев КУЛЕШОВ, Лев КАССИЛЬ Кража зрения публикатор Екатерина ХОХЛОВА

 
  • ОПЫТ
157 Сергей ФИЛИППОВ «В натуральную величину». Пространственная рецепция в раннем кино

 
  • ИСКУССТВО КРИТИКА
179 Владимир НЕДОБРОВО Киносилуэты (Окончание) публикатор Артем СОПИН

182 Владимир НЕДОБРОВО Лица и маски публикатор Петр БАГРОВ

 
  • В ПРОСТРАНСТВЕ КУЛЬТУРЫ
195 Петр БОГАТЫРЕВ Чарли и «Kid». Чаплин—мнимый граф публикатор Нина ДЫМШИЦ

211 Александр ГОНЧАРЕНКО История и архетип. Рассказ А.Н.Толстого «Терентий Генералов» и мультфильм В.М.Угарова «Сапожник и Русалка»

217 Григорий АМЕЛИН Сказочная судьба Амели Пулен

 
  • ЭЙЗЕНШТЕЙНОВСКИЕ ЧТЕНИЯ
252 Сергей ЭЙЗЕНШТЕЙН Визиты к миллионерам публикатор Наум КЛЕЙМАН

Приложение

269 Эскиз фильма «Сентиментальный романс» переводчик Вера РУМЯНЦЕВА

  К 450-летию со дня рождения Уильяма Шекспира

276 Контрольное задание на лето. Лекция проф. Эйзенштейна. 22/V–34 г. публикатор Наум КЛЕЙМАН

 
  • ИСТОКИ
287 Евгения ЗВОНКИНА Внимательно смотрите фильмы. Нереализованный сценарий Киры Муратовой как ключ к ее творчеству переводчик Наталья РЯБЧИКОВА

297 Кира МУРАТОВА, Владимир ЗУЕВ Внимательно смотрите сны, или Прикосновение публикатор Евгения ЗВОНКИНА

 
  • ОПЫТ. ПАРАЛЛЕЛИ
349 Аттила ШЕРЕШ Диссидентская оппозиция коммунистической власти: на улице и в павильонах киностудий

353 Григорий ЧУХРАЙ Отчет о поездке советских кинематографистов для участия в советско-венгерском симпозиуме художественных фильмов публикатор Аттила ШЕРЕШ

364 Оливер ХЭНЛИ, Адельхайд ХЕФТБЕРГЕР Вместе мы выстоим: Европейские киноархивы в век цифрового доступа переводчик Нина ЦЫРКУН

 
  • КИНЕМАТОГРАФ: ЖИЗНЬ И ПРИКЛЮЧЕНИЯ
369 Александр АНОЩЕНКО Из полузабытой эпохи

381 Яков ЖДАНОВ Работа с киноговорящими картинами. Воспоминания декламатора публикатор Александра БАТАЛИНА

413 Регина ЯНУШКЕВИЧ А годы не ждут… переводчик Анастасия ЯУМЕН (СЕМЕНЧИК)

 
  • ХРОНИКА
433 Речь Ю.Б.Норштейна на торжественном заседании Чешской Академии Художеств в Праге 7 мая 2014 года по случаю присуждения степени doctor honoris causa


CONTENTS

THEORY

Leonid KOZLOV, Andrey TARKOVSKY. The director-critic dialogues. Introduction, publication, and commentary by Daria Kruzhkova
At the beginning of the work on the popular Book of Correspondences, which was comprised of the dialogues between film scholar Olga Surkova and Andrey Tarkovsky, the director had a difference interlocutor, the well-known cinema theoretician Leonid Kozlov (the majority of their conversations occurred in August-September, 1970). The latter’s archive, which was deposited in the Museum of Cinema, preserved a lot of materials for the projected book. The publications contains only the most complete fragments of the text: 1) a memoire one: the history of their interraction from Kozlov’s point of view; 2) monologues and drafts of the theory part of the book, including an «Introductory Chapter», written by Tarkovsky: 3) a critical analysis of the script of Solaris and correspondence about the film, which the director was making at the time; 4) a short selection of the latest texts; 5) Kozlov’s reminiscences about the best films and directors from Tarkovsky’s point of view.

«MEZHRABPOMFILM» TURNS 90

Ekaterina KHOKHLOVA. The studio of masters. Films and lives
The article concerns the history of the film studio Mezhrabpom-Rus’, later Mezhrabpomfilm; the lives of people who worked there, in particular, Moisei Aleinikov, Fedor Otsep, Iurii Zheliabuzhskii, Iakov Protazanov, and Lev Kuleshov. The directors of the studio geared their films toward popular audience and followed the principles of realist cinema, trying to avoid openly ideological themes in their feature production. Numerous state-sponsored, state-requested films were released by the studio’s Scientific Production department, created in 1924.
During the last years of Mezhrabpomfilm’s existence a lot of people who had been working there for many years were purged and fired. Still, no matter how hard those years were for the studio’s personnel, Mezhrabpomfilm’s films preserved their high level of professionalism until the end.

Alexander SCHWARZ. From the hunger relief to the Red media consortium. Authorized translation by Anna Kukes
The author analyses in detail the history of Mezhrabpom (International Workers’ Aid), which was created for the organization of aid for the hunger-stricken Volga region; as well as the history of its film studio in the Soviet Union (Mezhrabpom-Rus’, later—Mezhrabpomfilm). The article concerns the first producers and directors of Mezhrabpom, its films, from the first documentaries about the hunger to the features of 1930s.

Alexander SCHWARZ. On electric lamps and glaciers, industrial plants, and coffee slaves. A survey of Mezhrabpom’s documentary cinema. Authorized translation by Anna Kukes
About the Russian-German collaboration in cinema in the 1920s-30s (as concerns Mezhrabpom), which started with the release of documentary films both in Germany and USSR with the help of Willi Münzenberg. The article analyses documentaries of the time, quite diverse in their genres and themes: numerous Kulturfilms, educational films, newsreels about noteworthy events, about the social position of workers and of the advances of technology, films about exotic journeys, about construction, electrification, and family problems…

Hunter AGDE. In the juxtaposition of shots: utopias and topoi. Translated by Anna Kukes

The author traces utopian images in Mezhrabpomfilm’s production. Ideological and cinematic constructions of the studio’s films were rather close to what was going on at the same time in the rest of the world. The studio’s films became a link between the phenomena of its time and the messes; they had a major impact on the masses. By the mid-1930s utopian ideas about the movement of human masses, about the future union of the peoples, which were at the background of the studio’s films, played themselves out. The social conditions changed radically: the Nazi regime in Germany demonstrated its power at the 1936 Berlin Olympics; while in USSR at the same time the big terror began. Still, Mezhrabpom stayed true to its utopia…

MUSEUM OF CINEMA

Lev KULESHOV, Lev KASSIL’, Leonid OBOLENSKII. Theft of sight. Introduction and publication by Ekaterina Khokhlova
The script of Lev Kuleshov’s finished, but banned and destroyed film Theft of sight (1934) is accompanied by a detailed description of the master’s little-known work. The publication of the script allows to see the interesting and impressive conception of the central female character, written for Aleksandra Khokhlova (although Kuleshov wasn’t allowed to use her), as well as included already in the script experiments with sound. The publication is accompanied by a large number of photographs, reproducing all the film’s episodes, which allow to form a certain idea of the mise-en-scene, camerawork, and acting in the script’s realization.

EXPERIENCE

Sergei FILIPPOV. «Natural sized». Space reception in early cinema
The article concerns the natural size in film reception. Based on contemporary reactions to early films, the author comes to the conclusion that if there really was the reception of natural size, even in a soft form, then in the non-documentary films of the first years of the 20th century there had to exist a standard size, which most of the films followed. This hypothesis is then tested on several films and on statistical data. The humanity has not stopped being interested in actual lineal sizes of depicted things, the author asserts.

THE ART OF CRITICISM

Vladimir NEDOBROVO. Cinema Silhouettes. (Continued) Publication by Artem Sopin

Vladimir NEDOBROVO. Faces and masks. Introduction, publication and commentary by Petr Bagrov
The concluding part of the republication of the cycle «Cinema Silhouettes» of the 1920s directors (begun in Issue 102/103) is followed naturally by the next cycle of portraits by the talented critic, about actors Fedor Nikitin, Sergei Gerasimov, Elena Egorova, Veronika Buzhinskaia, Valerii Solovtsov, Petr Sobolevskii, and Tat’iana Guretskaia. Nedobrovo not only carefully analyzes the specifics of the actors’ psychology and types, he also anticipates the careers of each of them.

IN THE REALM OF CULTURE

Petr BOGATYREV. Charlie and «The Kid».—Chaplin, the pretend Count. Introduction, publication, and commentary by Nina Dymshits
We republish two early articles from the collection Chaplin (Berlin, 1923), written by the well-known folklorist, ethnographer, theater historian and theoretician, slavist and translator Petr Grigor’evich Boratyrev, who was one of the founders of the Moscow Linguistic Circle, and then the Prague one. Charlie as a phenomenon, which inherits traditions of several centuries of culture—this is the overarching theme of these texts, each of which is centered on a particular film by Chaplin.

Aleksandr GONCHARENKO. History and archetype. A.N.Tolstoy’s story «Terentii Generalov» and V.M.Ugarov’s animated film Bootmaker and a Mermaid.
A mermaid is one of the complicated images of Russian mythology. Its common perception often misses a significant feature: mermaids are women and children who died an unnatural death. While keeping their earthly character and habits, beyond the grave they still live their lives till the end. Perhaps, the contradictions, and, simultaneously, the synthetiс unity of this image were the reasons for two different artists in different periods and for different purposes built their works on the image of a mermaid.

Grigorij AMELIN. The fabulous destiny of Amelie Poulin
«Amelie is the best example of true poetry. Lermontov’s Pechorin said about his friend Verner that the doctor is a poet, and a true poet at that, even though he never wrote a poem in his life. The same way Chateaubriand called Napoleon “a poet of action”—there’s not a line of poetry, but the poetry is still there. Poetry in action, not in words». This supposition allows the author to look at Jean-Pierre Jeunet’s film Amelie and its heroine in the context of various cultural associations.

EISENSTEIN READINGS

Sergei EISENSTEIN. Visits to millionaires. Introduction, publication, and commentary by Naum Kleiman

Supplement. A draft for Romance Sentimentale. Translated by Vera Rumiantseva
One of the best examples of Eisenstein’s ironic prose, the essay «Visits to millionaires», was written in September, 1939 in Tashkent, but the author never published it. The author of the introduction asks: why in Uzbekistan Eisenstein was reminded of Paris and sat down to write about the millionaire Leonard Rosenthal and its circle? He offers a theory: the contrast of the two types of characters and ways of life clearly corresponds to the film about the Fergana canal, which was begun, but quickly stopped at that time. It seems that the essay about the «two types of millionaires» was supposed to develop and assert on in different context the theme of moral contrast of two social formations. The second part of the essay, however, was never written.It is widely known that the visits to the «pearl king» were connected to the making of a 20-minute film Romance Sentimentale (Sentimental Romance), a draft for which supplements the publication. The money received for this film allowed Eisenstein’s group to live in Paris until the Hollywood contract was finally signed. The essay contains no mention of this «hackwork», as Eisenstein referred to his first attempt at sound cinema later, in his Memoires: there he again, much more concisely, described Leonard Rosenthal and the millionaire’s lover, the mother of his «illegitimate» daughter, who starred in Romance Sentimentale.

William Shakespeare is 450

Summer homework. Lecture of prof. Eisenstein. 22 May 1934. Introduction, publication, and commentary by Naum Kleiman
We publish the stenographic transcript of a seminar meeting from 22 May 1934, during which Eisenstein gives his students, who had recently worked on the imaginary staging of Julius Caesar, homework for the summer: they have to learn from Shakespeare again. The transcript is kept in the collection of professor Herbert Marshall, a former student of Eisenstein’s workshop, who in his later years taught at the University of South Illinois.

SOURCES

Eugénie ZVONKINE. Watch Your Films Attentively. Kira Muratova’s unrealised script as a key to her oeuvre. Authorized translation by Natalia Ryabchikova
The article, which introduces our publication of Kira Muratova’s early script, talks about the history of its creation and about the meaning of this unrealized script in the director’s oeuvre.

Kira MURATOVA, Vladimir ZUEV. Watch dreams attentively, or The touch. Publication by Eugénie Zvonkine
The script Watch Your Dreams Attentively (Vnimatel’no smotrite sny), written by Kira Muratova and Vladimir Zuev in 1969, is only one of the many projects of the stagnation period that never came to fruition. During the Soviet period alone, Muratova’s career counts two unfinished projects: the above-mentioned script and the project Princess Mary, which was halted at the casting stage. These projects are highly important in order to appreciate the coherence in the evolution of Muratova’s style and themes, but also to better understand the processes that were developing in Soviet cinema.

EXPERIENCE. PARALLELS

Attila SERES. The dissident opposition to Communist power: in the streets and in film studios.

Grigorij CHUKHRAI: A report on the trip of Soviet filmmakers to the Soviet-Hungarian film symposium. Publication and commentary by Attila Seres.
One of the most interesting, but still little-researched problems of the “Socialist camp” film history and its history in general is the problem of interconnections between national cinemas, in particular, the problem of interconnections between Soviet filmmakers and their Eastern European colleagues. We publish a report on the 1973 trip to Hungary of the group of Soviet filmmakers headed by Grigorii Chukhrai. This archival document was found and commented upon by historian Attila Seres, the representative of the Archival Institute at the Hungarian Cultural Center in Moscow.

Adelheid HEFTBERGER, Oliver HANLEY. Together we stand: European film archives in the digital age. Translated by Nina Tsyrkun
Of the European film legacy of the past 120 years we currently have access digitally to less than 1 per cent, and it seems that in the near future this number won’t grow. On the contrary, the currently existing financing schemes by European Union do not cover the expenses for digitalization anymore. Especially many problems face small «non-national» archives, like the Austrian Film Museum, whose collections go beyond local or national significance and include foreign films as well. For such institutions, which have to combat the lack of financing and human resources, collaboration within unified European network is one of the few ways to secure infrastructural support, necessary for digitalization as well as for making films available online. The article describes two examples of such collaboration, as a result of which the Austrian Film Museum received help through the European information exchange program for digitalization of films from their collection and making them available online.

CINEMA: LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Aleksander ANOSHCHENKO. From the half-forgotten era.—Iakov ZHDANOV. My work with «talking pictures». Reminiscences of cinema narrator. Introduction, publication, and commentary by Aleksandra Batalina
We continue our publication of materials collected by well-known film historian, filmographer, and bibliographer Veniamin Evgen’evich Vishnevskii for the first volume of his projected Materials and essays on the history of cinema in USSR, which was to be dedicated to pre-Revolutionary cinema. This issue includes two texts that are connected by their topic: they both talk about film professions that has since disappeared: that of silent film accompanist and silent film narration. The author of the first text, Aleksandr Dmitrievich Anoshchenko (Anoshchenko-Anod) worked as a musician, a journalist, a scriptwriter, and a film director. The author of the second one, Iakov Alekseevich Zhdanov, was an actor, a cameraman, and a scriptwriter. His reminiscences, unlike those by Anoshchenko, are wordy, muddled, and unstructured. Veniamin Vishnevskii edited them and significantly shortened them. We publish the full version here, since it contains many interesting facts, details, and signs of the time.

Regina IANUSHKEVICH. Time doesn’t wait… Translated by Anastasiia Iaumen (Semenchik). Introduction, publication, and commentary by Olga Romanova
We continue publishing chapters from the memoire book by scriptwriter Regina Ianushkevich Time doesn’t wait…, which came out in 1968 in Vilnius in Lithuanian. These chapters concern the scriptwriter’s work on the first color feature film Grunia Kornakova (Solovei-Solovushko) and on two scripts that were not produced: Nikita Gur’ianov, an adaptation of Fedor Panferov’s novel Bruski (And Then the Harvest), and Ocharovannaia dusha (The enchanted soul), an adaptation of Romain Rolland’s eponymous novel. Ianushkevich also writes about meeting Máté Zalka, Aleksei Tolstoy, Fedor Panferov, and Mikhail Vodop’ianov.

CHRONICLE

Yuri Norshtein’s acceptance speech at the session of the Czech Academy of the Arts in Prague on 7 May 2014, where he was awarded with the doctor honoris causa degree.
Among other things he said: «The main thing is not success or luck, but the everyday interest in every little point in life, one of which might suddenly sparkle with manifested deep meaning of basic ideas. The main thing is, in difficult circumstances, to consider oneself responsible and guilty for the things, in which you didn’t personally take part. The main thing is to be able to distinguish between bad and life-giving. As much as we try to assert that “tastes differ”, time brings together such notions as truth and beauty, to that we can point to them as a unified meaning, and it has nothing to do with taste. Perhaps, beautiful is truth. The main thing is not to be tempted by attractions, but try to build your own road through all the clever things that are being offered with a well-meaning smile, and, you, who’s taken the bait, haven’t noticed that you have missed the original, the real thing».

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