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ЭЙЗЕНШТЕЙНОВСКИЕ ЧТЕНИЯ
Статья Юлии ВАСИЛЬЕВОЙ «Эйзенштейн: политический и эстетический векторы творчества. Взгляд из XXI века» предлагает переосмыслить и проблематизировать отношения между философской и эстетической платформами Эйзенштейна и советской идеологией. Автор полагает, что теория и практика Эйзенштейна представляются более тесно связанными не с устаревшей полемикой касательно советской идеологии, но с более глобальными (и актуальными) проблемами, которые стоят перед искусством и человечеством.
Анализируя русскую иконопись как ключ к разгадке экспериментов Эйзенштейна с методом и смыслом в «Иване Грозном», Джоан НЬЮБЕРГЕР приходит к выводу, что в работе над «Грозным» сошлись три линии размышлений Эйзенштейна: диалектическая динамика конфликта и синтеза, которая восходит к самым ранним его работам по монтажу; поиск универсальных моделей человеческой культуры; и фундаментальная убежденность в эволюции во времени, — будь то коллективное историческое время или индивидуальное биографическое. Вместе они создают портрет Ивана как человека непреодолимых противоречий.
 
AD GLORIAM
К юбилею Михаила ЯМПОЛЬСКОГО — культуролога, киноведа, филолога и нашего постоянного автора, Наум КЛЕЙМАН от имени коллектива «КЗ» подготовил своеобразное приношение — наброски к «Мемуарам» Эйзенштейна, большая часть которых до сих пор не опубликована и требует тщательного изучения и комментариев.
 
БЕЛЫЕ СТОЛБЫ—2009
Сергей КАПТЕРЕВ рассказывает о работе с архивными материалами, которая помогла ему атрибутировать хранившийся в Госфильмофонде России фильм под условным названием «Страничка из биографии», как две части из считавшегося утраченным фильма Михаила КАЛАТОЗОВА «Их царство».
Большой блок материалов связан с показом на тринадцатом фестивале «Белые столбы» фильма А. Иванова и Е. Шифферса по сценарию О. Берггольц «Первороссияне» (1966). Яков БУТОВСКИЙ и Евгений МАРГОЛИТ рассматривают картину с точки зрения истории кино и контекста, актеры Лариса ДАНИЛИНА, Юлиан ПАНИЧ и Иван КРАСКО вспоминают об участии в съемках ленты, а Лариса ЛОНГИНА-СОКОЛОВА рассказывает о художнике Михаиле ЩЕГЛОВЕ, разработавшем изобразительное решение «Первороссиян». Отдельное место в рубрике занимают дневники режиссера Александра ИВАНОВА и стенограмма заседания худсовета «Ленфильма», на котором проходило обсуждение фильма.
 
РАЗЫСКАНИЯ
В этом номере мы представляем архивную находку — уникальные документы, касающиеся истории акционерного общества «Пролетарское кино» (1923–1927). Многие из них до недавнего времени находились под грифом «Секретно». В первой части публикации историка-архивиста Людмилы КИРЬЯКЕВИЧ — история постановки фильма «За что?» («Расплата»). В предваряющей документы статье Наталья РЯБЧИКОВА характеризует обстановку на студии в процессе производства картины, ставшей режиссерским дебютом Валерия ИНКИЖИНОВА и актерским — Ады ВОЙЦИК.
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

 
  • ЭЙЗЕНШТЕЙНОВСКИЕ ЧТЕНИЯ
5 Юлия ВАСИЛЬЕВА Эйзенштейн: политический и эстетический векторы творчества. Взгляд из XXI века

31 Джоан НЬЮБЕРГЕР Ангел Эйзенштейна переводчик(и) Наталья РЯБЧИКОВА

 
  • К 100-ЛЕТИЮ РОССИЙСКОЙ АНИМАЦИИ
61 Лев АТАМАНОВ «Анимация — это все что угодно плюс еще кое-что» интервьюер(ы) Людвига ЗАКРЖЕВСКАЯ

84 [Автобиографические наброски] публикатор(ы) Георгий БОРОДИН

92 Путешествие Льва Атаманова в Китай. Из истории несостоявшегося фильма «Начжа возмущает спокойствие моря», 1958 публикатор(ы) Георгий БОРОДИН

110 «Рисуют би эф эф», «Петрушка» и нереализованные замыслы публикатор(ы) Георгий БОРОДИН

118 Алексей ОРЛОВ Судьба бескамерной анимации в СССР: Александр Гладышев и Надежда Асланова

132 Наталья ГОЛОВАНОВА Древний Рим. Опус I

 
  • AD GLORIAM
141 Наум КЛЕЙМАН Мише Ямпольскому— ПОСВЯЩЕНИЕ (вместо предисловия)

143 Сергей Эйзенштейн. Наброски к «Мемуарам» публикатор(ы) Наум КЛЕЙМАН

 
  • В ПРОСТРАНСТВЕ КУЛЬТУРЫ
164 Константин БАНДУРОВСКИЙ Секс без покровов

 
  • БЕЛЫЕ СТОЛБЫ—2009
174 Архивные находки

176 Сергей КАПТЕРЕВ От «Странички из биографии» к «Их царству». (Заметки к исследованию)

  «ПЕРВОРОССИЯНЕ»

182 Владимир ДМИТРИЕВ ПРОЛОГ

184 Яков БУТОВСКИЙ «Первороссияне» (1966-2009)

194 Лариса ДАНИЛИНА «Встреча с Шифферсом была для меня даром судьбы» интервьюер(ы) Тамара СЕРГЕЕВА

201 Юлиан ПАНИЧ Горестное послесловие

209 Иван КРАСКО «Для Шифферса вся жизнь была экспериментом» интервьюер(ы) Петр БАГРОВ

217 Лариса ЛОНГИНА-СОКОЛОВА Распятый шут. Глава из книги

238 Евгений МАРГОЛИТ Такое кино. (В контексте кинопроцесса)

249 «Первороссияне»: архив

252 Александр Иванов. Дневник публикатор(ы) Петр БАГРОВ

290 «Первороссийска нет — коммуна зреет». Объединенное заседание Художественного совета студии и Второго творческого объединения, 1967 публикатор(ы) Петр БАГРОВ

 
  • АНДРЕЮ ХРЖАНОВСКОМУ — 70
319 Наталья КРИВУЛЯ Удивительные путешествия в пространстве культуры, или Интеллектуальные игры Андрея Хржановского

 
  • К ИНТЕРПРЕТАЦИИ ФИЛЬМА
343 Олег ЗАСЛАВСКИЙ Между Богом и Минотавром. Анализ фильма М. Антониони «За облаками»

359 Борис РЕЙФМАН Структура против структуры. Одна из возможных интерпретаций фильма Ж.-Л. Годара «На последнем дыхании»

374 Ирина МЕЛЬНИКОВА (Ре)презентация «Превращения»: Фокин, Кафка, Магритт и проблема кинематографической адаптации

 
  • РАЗЫСКАНИЯ
388 Наталья РЯБЧИКОВА Съемочная площадка: «Пролеткино»

405 Документы по фильму «Расплата», 1926 публикатор(ы) Людмила КИРЬЯКЕВИЧ

 
  • РЕЦЕПЦИЯ
418 Лариса БЕРЕЗОВЧУК Об использовании зрелищных жанров режиссерами арт-хауса

 
  • ИСТОРИЧЕСКАЯ ПОЧТА
438 «И все-таки оно будет!» Письма С.М. Эйзенштейна Леону Муссинаку публикатор(ы) Владимир ЗАБРОДИН

 
  • ДОКУМЕНТЫ И КОММЕНТАРИИ
449 Главные указания при просмотре кинематографических лент. Петроград, 1915 публикатор(ы) Анна КОВАЛОВА

 
  • ЗАМЕТКИ НА ПОЛЯХ КНИГ
455 Екатерина САЛЬНИКОВА Манифест аналитика-синтезатора. (Н.А. Хренов. Образы великого разрыва. Кино в контексте смены культурных циклов. М.: Прогресс-традиция, 2008)

460 Сергей КАПТЕРЕВ Две книги о главном. (Peter Rollberg. Historical Dictionary of Russian and Soviet Cinema. Lanham, Md: Scarecrow Press, 2009; Birgit Beumers. A History of Russian Cinema. Oxford-New York: Berg, 2009)

465 Дмитрий САЛЫНСКИЙ «В метафорическом плане все гармонические системы являются своего рода храмами». (Киногерменевтика Тарковского. М.: Продюсерский центр «Квадрига», 2009) интервьюер(ы) Тамара СЕРГЕЕВА

 
  • ВОЗВРАЩАЯСЬ К НАПЕЧАТАННОМУ
475 Исправляем ошибку


CONTENTS
EISENSTEIN READINGS
Yuliya VASILYEVA. Eisenstein: the political and the aesthetic aspects of work. A view from the 21st century
The article proposes to reconsider and problematize the relationships between the philosophic and aesthetic platforms of Eisenstein and the Soviet ideology. The author thinks that Eisenstein’s theory and practice are connected not as much with the outdated polemics about the Soviet ideology as with more global (and topical) problems faced by art and humanity. These are, for instance: how a human life can be understood and modeled in its historical development, how can we define the nature of the human being not severing the ties with his biological nature and the universe. And the most important question: how can we keep the direction towards freedom in this search.
 
Joan NEUBERGER. Eisenstein’s angel. (Translated by Natalia Ryabchikova)
The author analyzes Russian icons as a key to Eisenstein’s experiments with method and meaning in «Ivan the Terrible» and comes to the conclusion that in «Ivan» three lines of Eisenstein’s thinking converged: a dialectic dynamics of conflict and synthesis that dates back to his earliest works on montage; a search for universal models of human culture and fundamental belief in evolution in time, be that collective histori­cal time or individual time of human life. Together they create the portrait of Ivan as a man of irresolvable controversies.
 
 
DEDICATED TO THE CENTENARY OF RUSSIAN ANIMATION
Lev ATAMANOV: «Animation is anything plus something else» (Interviewed by Lyudviga Zakrzhevskaya)
 
[Autobiographical Sketches]
 
Lev Atamanov’s trip to China. From the history of production of an unmade film «Nachzha disturbs the calm of the sea», 1958
 
«Drawn by BFF», «Petrushka» and unrealized projects
(Publication, introduction and commentary by Georgiy Borodin with the participation of Sergei Toroptsev)
 
This section is compiled of materials from the family archive of the animation director Lev Atamanov. In an interview from the middle of 1970s he talks at length about his work and family history and discusses the nature of animation and the films of his colleagues. In an autobiographical draft Atamanov gives evidence concerning the work on film illustrations for a report by V. Kuibyshev. There is no other written evidence of this collective work of almost all Moscow animation artists (quite a unique thing at the time). A cluster of documents about the abortive co-production of USSR and China includes correspondence between Atamanov, the officials of the Chinese studio and Soyuzmultfilm as well as Atamanov’s diary notes. The section about unrealized Atamanov’s projects includes his correspondence with Herluf Bidstrup, a proposal for a screen version of Igor Stravinsky’s opera and a letter from Atamanov to Soyuzmultfilm officials about his work in 1970s.
 
Alexei M. ORLOV. The fate of the drawn on film animation in USSR: Alexandr Gladyshev and Nadezhda Aslanova
An interview with animator Alexandr Gladyshev. The director talks about his life, his work at the Kishinev studio, about technical equipment invented for drawing on film, about the use of Norman McLaren’s experi­ments and about the fate of his own films.
 
Natalia GOLOVANOVA. Ancient Rome. Оpus 1
Natalia Evgenyevna GOLOVANOVA (Kotovschikova) is an animation director, scriptwriter and artist. For many years she has worked at the Soyuzmultfilm studio and her essay presents an allegorical account of the studio’s everyday life of 1970–1980s.
 
 
AD GLORIAM
Tribute to Mikhail Yampolskiy
 
Sergei EISENSTEIN. Drafts of the «Memoirs». (Publication by Naum Kleiman)
In this section we publish a small part of the array of outlines and drafts for Eisenstein’s memoirs that are scattered among «autobiographic materials» as such as well as in other sections of the director’s archive, among «diary notes», «excerpts, citations, outlines» and among drafts of theoretical works. The section is dedicated to M.B. Yampolskiy who celebrates his 60th anniversary.
 
 
IN THE REALM OF CULTURE
Konstantin BANDUROVSKIY. Sex without covers
In the modern day films the principles of differentiation between erotica and pornography established in European culture have often been broken. The author associates this with the cinema’s loss of sensual­ity. Taking several films of the recent years as examples he scrutinizes this problem from the standpoint of philosophy and the history of painting.
 
 
BELYE STOLBY—2009
Archival finds. (Natalia Yakovleva)
About the new section of the Gosfilmofond festival «Belye Stolby» called «Archival Finds». One of the presentations made during the festival formed the basis of the article below.
 
Sergei KAPTEREV. From «A page from a biography» to «Their kingdom». (Notes for a research)
The author writes about his work with archival material which helped him to attribute a film stored at the Gosfilmofond archive (provisional title «A page from a biography», no intertitles) as the remained two reels of Mikhail Kalatozov’s film «Their kingdom» that had been thought lost.
 
«PERVOROSSIYANE»
The prologue. (Vladimir Dmitriev)
This section is related to the screening of the film «Pervorossiyane» (1966, directed by A. Ivanov and E. Shiffers based on a script by O. Berggolts) at the XIII «Belye Stolby» film festival. The deputy director of the Gosfilmfond archive Vladimir Dmitriev writes about the process of transferring the widescreen copy of the film to 35 mm. For many years the film could not be screened due to the absence of the needed equipment in Russia.
 
Yakov BUTOVSKIY. «Pervorossiyane» (1966–2009)
The author compares his impressions from the first viewing of the film 40 years ago on the big screen (in widescreen variant) to the new DVD of the film restored to 35 mm in HD format. He notes the inevitable loss in image quality and remembers his trip to a shooting location of the film.
 
Larisa DANILINA: «Meeting with Shiffers was the smile of fortune for me». (Interviewed by Tamara Sergeeva)
The actress Larisa Danilina, the wife of director Evgeniy Shiffers, remembers how she joined the crew of «Pervorossiyane» and how the filming went. She reflects on Shiffers’s style of work on the set and speaks about the director’s life after the film when he was banned from working in theater or film and turned to writing religious and philosophic treatises.
 
Yulian PANICH. A sorrowful afterword
The text is about the filming of «Pervorossiyane» in which the author took part as an actor and about his own documentary «You see, I’m not forgetting…» dedicated to the production of «Pervorossiyane».
 
Ivan KRASKO: «For Shiffers his whole life was an experiment». (Interviewed by Petr Bagrov)
The actor remembers the beginning of his career, the meeting with Evgeniy Shiffers and the making of «Pervorossiyane».
 
Larisa LONGINA-SOKOLOVA. The crucified jester. A chapter from the book
The text centers around the figure of the theatre designer Mikhail Shcheglov and around his work on «Pervorossiyane» as an art director. The author writes about the history of the film’s reception, about its visual principles, as well as about the atmosphere on the set.
 
Evgeniy MARGOLIT. Such a film. (In the context of the film process)
The texts puts «Pervorossiyane» in the context of cinema of the 1960s, and specifically in the context of poetical films of that period that inherit some principles of the Ukrainian poetical cinema of the sec­ond half of 1920s (Dovzhenko, Kavaleridze). The author defines the film as an example of the «anti-cinema» that dates back to the genre of miracle. He pays special attention to such things as the fundamental static nature of the film, its emphasized placard style, expressive details, the ornamental nature of screen space (which is a sign of its sanctification), and consistent play with the flat surface of the film image.
 
Alexandr Ivanov. Diary
Notes from the journal the director Alexandr Ivanov kept on the set of the film «Pervorossiyane» in the summer of 1966 as well as his letters to his wife from that period.
 
«There’s no Pervorossiysk — a Commune is Ripening». Joint session of the artistic counsel of the film studio and the Second creative association, 1967
We publish a transcript of the session of the artistic counsel of «Lenfilm» (April 4, 1967). Among its par­ticipants were E.S. Dobin, V.Ya. Vengerov, S.S. Orlov, N.N. Kosheverova, L.G. Muratov, I.I. Shneiderman, G.M. Kozintsev, A.Ya. Vitol, L.N. Rakhmanov, M.A. Gukovskiy, N.I. Lebedev, M.A. Dudin, O.F. Berggolts, D.M. Moldavskiy and others. The speakers noted the courage of the authors’ artistic search, the tragic note of the film, its expressive camera work.
(Publication, introduction and commentary by Petr Bagrov)
 
 
ANDREI KHRZHANOVSKIY 70
Natalia KRIVULYA. Amazing adventures, or Intellectual games of Andrei Khrzhanovskiy
The author talks about the films of the classical Russian animator not only from the standpoint of a researcher but from inside the film production process as well, having worked as an artist on several of Khrzhanovskiy’s films. This synthetic method gives a three-dimensional picture of the multi-layered work of the master.
 
 
TOWARDS INTERPRETATION OF A FILM
Oleg ZASLAVSKIY. Between the God and the Minotaur. Analysis of M. Antonioni’s «Beyond the Clouds»
The article examines the key images for understanding the film as well as their relationship to the general characteristics of Antonioni’s poetics. The author analyses the transformation of scriptural and mythological plots. In the context of the Minotaur myth he goes on to examine the conflict between the divine Creator and an artist. Revealing semiotic oppositions in the plot of the film, the author speculates about the problem of authenticity of the work of fiction and/or the problem of its authorship. He writes specifically about the author­ship of «Beyond the Clouds» which was made by Antonioni with Wim Wenders as an assistant.
 
Boris REIFMAN. Structure vs. structure. One of the many possible interpretations of J.-L. Godard’s «À bout de souffle»
The author gives a detailed analysis of the characters’ actions and their motives and talks about the possible viewers’ perception of these actions that can be one of parody or absurd. At the same time the author writes about the viewers’ perception of the director’s cinematic language and about his behavior in the film with respect to viewers’ perception. Comparing actions, words and gestures of the characters with philosophic arguments of Camus, Derrida, Lacan and Godard the author reveals the discourses that intersect in the narrative and the levels of the narrative itself.
 
Irina MELNIKOVA. (Re)presentation of «Metamorphosis». Fokin, Kafka, Magritt and the problem of cinema adaptation
Valeriy Fokin’s film based on Franz Kafka’s «Metamorphosis» serves as the starting point for the author’s reflections about literature and cinema as two different modes of writing. The author employs a structural analysis of Fokin’s cinematic text and pays special attention to quoting of Magritt’s paintings that plays an important part in understanding the director’s message.
 
 
EXPLORATION
Natalia RYABCHIKOVA. Film set: «Proletkino»
 
Documents concerning the film «Atonement», 1926. (Publication and text preparation by Lyudmila Kiryakevich, commentary by Natalia Ryabchikova)
In this issue we present an archival find — documents concerning the functioning of the non-governmental film studio «Proletkino» (1923–1927). Some of the documents have been classified up to this day. The first part of the documents published deals with the production history of the film «Atonement», now lost. The article preceding the documents section describes the state of affairs at the studio during the production of the film which was Valeriy Inkizhinov’s directorial debut, where the actress Ada (Yadviga) Voitsik played her first major part and where Ivan Pyriev worked as an assistant director.
 
 
RECEPTION
Larisa BEREZOVCHUK. Concerning the use of mass culture genres by art-house directors
For the past several years several film directors traditionally ranked among the members of the art-house movement have turned to the genre cinema. The author scrutinized the state of the genre canon in Lars von Trier’s «Dancer in the Dark», comes to the conclusion that the film is an «anti-musical» and then tries to find out the aims of such genre «games».
 
 
LETTERS FROM THE PAST
«Nevertheless, it will be!» Letters of S.M. Eisenstein to Leon Mussinac (Publication, text preparation and commentary by Vladimir Zabrodin)
Three letters and several postcards from S.M. Eisenstein to Leon Mussinac were removed (due to censorial reasons) from Moussinac’s «Selected Works» (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1981) where almost all correspondence between the Soviet director and the French critic was published.
 
 
DOCUMENTS AND COMMENTARY
Main directions for viewing cinematographic films. Petrograd, 1915 (Publication, introduction and commentary by Anna Kovalova)
Censorial instructions that inspectors had to follow in examining films. They were compiled in 1915 and sanctioned by the governor of Petrograd.
 
 
MARGINALIA
Ekaterina SALNIKOVA. Manifesto of an analyst-synthesizer. (N.A. Khrenov. Images of the great rupture. Cinema in the context of changing cultural cycles. Moscow: Progress-Traditsiya, 2008)
The new book by N.A. Khrenov, «Images of the great rupture. Cinema in the context of changing cultural cycles», is an important stage in the development of the author’s ideas about humanities. As such, the reviewer argues, the book becomes a manifesto of a whole new school in cultural studies.
 
Sergei KAPTEREV. Two books about the most important. (Peter Rollberg. Historical Dictionary of Russian and Soviet Cinema. Lanham, Md: Scarecrow Press, 2009 ; Birgit Beumers. A History of Russian Cinema. Oxford–New York: Berg, 2009)
This year two fundamental books about the Soviet and Russian film have been published abroad. The author analyses them from a point of view of different categories of foreign readers as well as from the standpoint of importance of these works for Russian film scholars.
 
Dmitriy SALYNSKIY: «Metaphorically speaking, all harmonious systems can be considered temples». (The author talks about his book (Dmitriy Salynskiy. Cinemahermeneutics of Takovsky. Moscow: Kvadriga, 2009) with Tamara Sergeeva)
The author argues that in Tarkovskiy’s films one can see many meanings on different levels if one reads these films using the language of «the archeology of culture». With the help of hermeneutics which draws attention primarily to the vertical, to the value scale one is able to analyze not only mythologems but other semantic fields as well, the fields that relate to other types of consciousness. Moreover, each new layer doesn’t negate the previous one, but it reconsiders its material. Salynskiy uses St. Augustine’s four-level structure of text and, without disputing the affinity of hermeneutics to psychoanalysis, he notes that the former relates to the spiritual sphere.
 
 
PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED
Correcting an error
Conclusions drawn from Larisa Berezovchuk’s article «The Phenomenon of Film Narrative (Towards the Preliminary Definition of the Notion’s Semantic Field)» (KZ, № 89/90).
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